Aim: The PAMJ Clinical Medicine was created to highlight the rich output of clinical practice accross Africa. Scope: We publish clinical case reports, case series, images, reviews, commentary, opinions and research articles from the broad spectrum of clinical medicine and clinical research.
PAMJ is an online open access peer-reviewed journal focusing on clinical medicine. Authors are encouraged to submit original research,
systematic review and short
the field of clinical medicine.
Prior to submit your first article, you should apply for a user name and password. PAMJ offers a user friendly process for online submission through the PAMJ Manuscript Hut ™.
Short reports will include case report, commentary, conference proceedings, editorials, viewpoints, and letter to the editors. Short Communications should be no longer than 1500 words. They must have an abstract and references, but the main body of the text does not have to follow the original research´s format. We give privilege to invited reviews and encourage prospective authors of systematic reviews to discuss the project with the editorial office before development.
Manuscripts will be initially screened by an editor for adherence to the journal´s instructions or identification of gross deficiencies. At this stage, the corresponding author can be contacted by the editorial office for clarification or the manuscript can be rejected. Once this initial screening is completed, manuscripts are sent to two-three referees; if appropriate, a statistical reviewer is involved. On average, we will report back to authors within 6 weeks with a first decision. Authors should however note that the average duration from submission to publication is roughly 3 months (1 - 6 months). We encourage authors not to contact the editorial office less than 6 weeks after the initial submission. We discourage and will ignore requests by authors to speed up the publication process for a particular manuscript.
Manuscripts must be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript, and should not be submitted by anyone on their behalf. The submitting author takes responsibility for the article during submission and peer review.
Languages of publication are English and French. All manuscripts in French should include an English translation of the title, abstract and keywords. Poor English of French do not prevent acceptance provided the paper's content is of high scientific quality; we however strongly encourage authors to have their manuscript reviewed by a fluent English speaker and writer to improve its language contents prior to submission. All accepted manuscripts are copy-edited.
Files can be submitted as a batch. The submission process allows the authors to interrupt it at any time, and continue where they left off at their return on the site.
During submission you will be asked to provide a cover letter. Use this to explain why your manuscript should be published in the journal and to elaborate on any issues relating to our editorial policies detailed in the instructions for authors.
Assistance with the process of manuscript preparation and submission is available from the customer support team (email@example.com). We also provide a collection of links to useful tools and resources for scientific authors, on our resources for authors page.
PAMJ content licensing: Articles published in PAMJ are Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited..
2. Submission of a paper
PAMJ only accepts online submission. Click here to access the Online Manuscript Submission System. Simple onscreen instructions are provided. If you experience problems with the online submission system, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Do not send your manuscript to that email address, it will be ignored.
Conflicts of interest
Will be mentioned in the manuscript as "Authors declared they have no conflicts of interest".
Download the journal manuscript template to help you format your manuscript.
Maximum length: 4000 words in main text (i.e., excluding abstract, references, legends, tables and figures), 4 tables/figures maximum, and a structured abstract of 250 words plus up to 50 references.
Title page - This page should states: a) The title of the paper (include the study design if appropriate; for example: A versus B in the treatment of C: a randomized controlled trial; X is a risk factor for Y: a case control study), b) Authors names (full name - no qualification. Strictly follow this order: First Name, Middle name (if ever), Last Name. E.g.: Paul Kevin Akuna), c) institution(s) of origin, d) Corresponding author plus his/her address, telephone and fax number, e-mail address, e) Word count (for both abstract and the main text)
Abstract - The abstract of the manuscript should not exceed 250 words and must be structured into separate sections: Background: the context and purpose of the study; Methods: how the study was performed and statistical tests used; Results: the main findings; Conclusion: brief summary and potential implications. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.
Keywords. Up to ten keywords (suitable for Index Medicus listing) should be provided at the end of the Abstract.
Abbreviations a list of abbreviations is not accepted. Define abbreviations the first time they are used in the text and use them thereafter. No abbreviations in the abstract except for vary know ones.
Background The background section should be written from the standpoint of researchers without specialist knowledge in that area and must clearly state - and, if helpful, illustrate - the background to the research and its aims. Reports of clinical research should, where appropriate, include a summary of a search of the literature to indicate why this study was necessary and what it aimed to contribute to the field. The section should end with a very brief statement of what is being reported in the article.
Methods Sufficient information should be given to permit repetition of the experimental work. This should include the design of the study, the setting, the type of participants or materials involved, a clear description of all interventions and comparisons, and the type of analysis used, including a power calculation if appropriate.
Results - The Results should be stated concisely without discussion and should not normally contain any references. The same data should not be presented in figures and tables. Do not repeat all the data that is set out in the tables or figures in the text; emphasize or summarize only important observations.
Discussion - The Discussion should deal with the interpretation of the results and not recapitulate them. We encourage authors to write their Discussion in a structured way, as follows:a) statement of principal findings; b) strengths and weaknesses of the study; c) strengths and weaknesses in relation to other studies; d) discussion of important differences in results; e) meaning of the study; f) unanswered questions and future research.
What is already known on this topic: include a maximum of 03 bullet points on what is already known on this topic.
What this study adds: include a maximum of 03 bullet points on what your study adds.
Acknowledgements - Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the study by making substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content, but who does not meet the criteria for authorship. Please also include their source(s) of funding. Please also acknowledge anyone who contributed materials essential for the study. The role of a medical writer must be included in the acknowledgements section, including their source(s) of funding. Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements. Please list the source(s) of funding for the study, for each author, and for the manuscript preparation in the acknowledgements section. Authors must describe the role of the funding body, if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Competing interest - Authors are responsible for recognizing and disclosing conflicts of interest that might bias their work. They should acknowledge in the manuscript all financial support for the work and other personal connections. Authors are required to complete a declaration of competing interests. All competing interests that are declared will be listed at the end of published articles. Where an author gives no competing interests, the listing will read 'The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests'. When completing your declaration, please consider the following questions:
Financial competing interests
Authors' contributions - In order to give appropriate credit to each author of a paper, the individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section. The Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URM) of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME) recommends the following criteria for authorship (Learn more about the URM on Authorship and Contributorship):
References - References must be numbered consecutively, in square brackets (like this , or this [2,3] or even this [4-7]), in the order in which they are cited in the text, followed by any in tables or legends. Reference citations should not appear in titles or headings. Each reference must have an individual reference number. Preferably, limit the number of references to 50. If automatic numbering systems are used, the reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission. We encourage authors to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted. Examples of the PAMJ reference style are shown below. Please take care to follow the reference style precisely; references not in the correct style may be retyped, necessitating tedious proofreading.
We strongly advocate the use of Zotero, a free and open source reference management software which is a very good alternative to expensive software like Reference Manager or EndNote.
Formatting book references: Use the format below to reference a book
Author of the book. Title of the book. Year of publication. Publisher Location. Publisher name
Example: Fleiss JL. Statistical methods for rates and proportions - 3rd edition. 2003. Hoboken. J Wiley
NB: Note the use of dots to separate the sections of the book reference.
Formatting web references: Use the format below to reference a web page
or a web site
Author of the page. Name of the source (if any). Year of data. url. Date link accessed
Example: SAS Institute. SAS 9. http://support.sas.com/software/index.htm. Accessed 10 April 2005
NB: Note the use of dots to separate the sections of the web reference.
Supplementary material/Appendices (if any) - Submit any supplementary material to the editorial office bye email. The editorial office can also decide which material will be published as supplemental material.
Files must be named with the three letter file extension appropriate to the
file type (eg: .jpeg, .png). You will be asked to provide figure labels during
the submission process. (The label is the small comment that usually goes with
the figure. Example: Figure 1: Prevalence of diabetes in the study population
aged 18 years and above. Findings of the TRICARE Diabetes Study, Uganda, 2006.)
If you use excel to generate your graph, avoid 3D, crowded axes, colored background, strong grid etc.. Use Tahoma font (size 10 maximum) for all items in your graphs (Title, legend, axes etc..). Expand your Excel graph to obtain a large image, copy and paste it in Paint (Microsoft Paint), crop any white border and save the image as PNG or JPEG. Submit this image for your manuscript (don't forget to include the legends for each figure inside the main manuscript) Look at an acceptable formatted Excel graph here. See the detailed sample instructions for a nicely formatted Excel graph here.
The PAMJ follows the CARE guidelines (for CAse REports) to support accuracy, transparency, and usefulness of case reports. Authors of case reports should ensure that their submission follows the CARE Check list.
The CARE checklist is available for download here: CARE Checklist (In English) . Follow the link to the care-statement to see examples of case reports formatted according to the CARE guidelines. The Scientific Writing in Health and Medicine (SWIHM) provide online courses in writing case reports following the CARE Guidelines. Additional resources for authors are available from the CARE guidelines authors page.
Download case report templates to help formatting your manuscript.
A case series is a group or series of case reports involving patients who were given similar treatment. Reports of case series usually contain detailed information about the individual patients. This includes demographic information (for example, age, gender, ethnic origin) and information on diagnosis, treatment, response to treatment, and follow-up after treatment [Definition of a case series]. A case series should include:
In images in medicine, we publish clinical images of medical conditions, common or uncommon. This section also accommodates images of surprising, innovative or uncommon public health situations. We want to capture the visual experience of clinical providers or public health professionals, images they think should be shared with colleagues to enrich their experience or for educational purposes. When submitting images for consideration for publication as Images in Medicine, ensure the following:
To submit an image for publication in the PAMJ Images in Medicine section, follow the submission instructions below:
The suitability for publication of the image will be decided by the editorial team or a reviewer expert in the domain.
The clinical quiz is a collection of images with suggested diagnosis. The images included in the quiz are derived from manuscripts submitted as Images in medicine and Case reports. To contribute to the quiz, ensure that your image or case report includes images suitable for inclusion in the quiz. Provide in addition to the final diagnosis of the condition, three differential diagnosis. The suggested quiz will be reviewed by one of our clinical editor for suitability. If accepted, the quiz will be posted without further notice. Authors of manuscripts included in the quiz will be acknowledged in our upcoming Image quiz contributors list.
A maximum of 1500 words in the main text (i.e. excluding abstract, references and legends) plus up to ten references and normally no more than
two illustrations (tables or figures or one of each). Otherwise in the same format as full-length original papers (see above).
Download short communication templates to help format your manuscripts.
9. Systematic Reviews, Meta-Analyses Templates.
Contrary to what it seems, review articles are some of the most challenging to write. Articles submitted to the PAMJ as systematic reviews and meta-analyses should adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.
A maximum of 5000 words in the main text (i.e. excluding abstract, references and legends) plus up to 100 references. Reviews are usually solicited, although unsolicited Reviews may be considered for publication. Prospective writers of Reviews should first consult the Editors.
Several PRISMA extensions exist that we invite prospective authors of reviews to consult and adhere to.
Download review templates to help format your manuscripts.
In addition, the PRISMA Website provides key documents for authors. Kindly ensure that your review follows these important guidelines
Comment briefly on findings of Journal articles or other noteworthy public health advances (up to 800 words in main text, no abstract, limited to 10 references).
Please note that word counts refer exclusively to the main text and do not include abstract, references, or acknowledgments.
Download letter to the editors templates to help format your manuscripts.
Up to 2500 words in main text, 2 tables/figures, and an unstructured abstract of 120 words.
Download the commentary template.
Analytical essays provide a forum for critical analyses of public health
issues from disciplines other than the biomedical sciences, including
(but not limited to) the social sciences, human rights, and ethics (up
to 3500 words
in main text, 4 tables/figures, and an unstructured abstract of 120 words).
Download the Essay template.
13. Case Study
PAMJ approach to case studies is wide. Case studies are used mainly for educational purposes. We broadly distingue three main types of case study:
Type 1: A fictional problem purely for education purposes.
Type 2: The Analytical Approach examines a situation in order to try and understand the what and why. This approach do not necessarily propose solutions to the problem.
Type 3: The Problem-Oriented Method identifies the major problems that exist and suggest solutions to these problems.
Depending on the type of Case Study, the following structure is suggested:
Download the Case study paper template.
This is designed to present a forum for critical debate about timely
public health topics (up to 1000 words, 10 references). The following
structure typically applies to a debate paper: Abstract, Debate,
References (not more than 10 references).
Download the debate paper template.
Report Preliminary or novel findings may be reported as (up to 800 words
in main text, 2 tables/figures, and an abstract of up to 80 words). The
following structure applies to a brief: Abstract, Brief, Competing interests,
Authors’ contributions, Acknowledgments (if any), Tables and figures
(if any, maximum 1 table and 1 figure), References (not more than 15 references).
Download the brief template.
An editorial is an article written by or on behalf of the editors that
gives an opinion on a topical issue. Editorials are usually solicited. Contact
the editorial office if you wish to submit an editorial to the journal.
The structure of an editorial typically includes:
An opinion piece is a short article providing the personal opinion of
the author on a subject of interest. Opinion article may be solicited
or not. The following structure applies to an opinion piece: Abstract,
Opinion, Competing interests,
References (not more than 5 references). Contact
the editorial office if you wish to submit an opinion piece.
Download the opinion template
18. Media watch
Media watch are brief comments on a burning issues recently published
in the general media : news papers (online or print), TV, video, interviews,
books etc. Contact the editorial office if you wish to submit a Media Watch.
Download the Media Watch template
A perspective essay is an essay where the author is asked to voice their
opinion on a given topic. The topic chosen to provide a personal perspective
about should be of clinical or public health interest to PAMJ readership.
A perspective should not be based on the opinions of others, but should
explicitly express the author's perspective or
views. In the
of writing a perspective, the author should help readers understand how
they form their opinion. A perspective is typically a non-technical document,
understandable to a wide non-technical audience, so avoid using jargon.
Use the first person (I, or we if more than one author). Use details
and examples to illustrate your point.
Obituaries acknowledge the work of a significant and recently deceased
professional. Contact the editorial office if you wish to submit an obituary.
We welcome conferences sponsored supplements and proceedings. Prospective conference organizers should contact the editorial office with the project for specific instructions.
22. Revised manuscripts
If you are asked to revise your manuscript you will be expected to provide a covering letter that responds in detail to each point raised by reviewers or editors,
and to highlight new material in the text using a different color (do not use the 'track changes' mode of Word).
If a manuscript returned to the authors for revision is not returned to the Editorial Office within the stipulated time-period (usually 4 weeks),
it will be treated as a new manuscript.
An email is sent to the corresponding author. Typographical errors only should be corrected.
The corrected proof should be returned within 48 h. Failure to comply with this deadline will delay publication.
Verbatim material or illustrations taken from other published sources must be accompanied by a written statement from the author,
and from the publisher if holding the copyright, giving permission to PAMJ for reproduction.
The author(s) keep(s) the copyright to his/their article if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive and unlimited rights to reproduce and distribute the article in any form of reproduction (printing, electronic media or any other form); it also covers translation rights for all languages and countries. For more information about the copyright, see our copyright agreement.
1. Key points
PAMJ uses online peer review to speed up the publication process. Submitted manuscripts will be sent to peer reviewers, unless they are either out of scope or below threshold for the journal, or the presentation or written English/French is of an unacceptably low standard.
Competing interests from are seek from authors and reviewers. Reviewers declare any competing interests and have to agree to open peer review. This implies that authors and reviewers agreed that if the manuscript is published, the peer review will be made available to the readers. The pre-publication history (initial submission, reviews and revisions) is then posted on the web with the published article.
The article will be available online through PAMJ as browser able (html) and PDF format. The ultimate responsibility for any decision lies with the Editor-in-Chief, to whom any appeals against rejection should be addressed.
Each author will be asked to provide the contact details (including e-mail addresses) of at least 2 potential peer reviewers for their manuscript. These should be experts in their field of study, who will be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. However, any suggested peer reviewers should not have published with any of the authors of the manuscript within the past five years and should not be members of the same research institution. Members of the Editorial Board of the journal can be nominated. Suggested reviewers will be considered alongside potential reviewers identified by their publication record or recommended by Editorial Board members.
Reviewers are asked whether the manuscript is scientifically sound and coherent, how interesting it is and whether the quality of the writing is acceptable. Where possible, the final decision is made on the basis that the peer reviewers are in accordance with one another, or that at least there is no strong dissenting view. In cases where there is strong disagreement either among peer reviewers or between the authors and peer reviewers, advice is sought from a member of the journal's Editorial Board. The journal allows a maximum of two revisions of any manuscripts.
Reviewers are also asked to indicate which articles they consider to be especially interesting or significant. These articles may be given greater prominence and greater external publicity.
We take the issue of plagiarism very seriously. All manuscripts submitted to the PAMJ are checked for plagiarism various tools and services. Suspected instances of plagiarism will be investigated thoroughly. Manuscripts confirmed with plagiarism will be removed from consideration in the journal; disciplinary action against authors will also be considered. If the plagiarism is identified after publication, the article will be retracted, and a retraction notice published.
Any manuscript or substantial parts of it, submitted to PAMJ must not be under consideration by any other journal. The manuscript should not have already been published in any journal or other citable form, with that exception that the journal is willing to consider peer-reviewing manuscripts that are translations of articles originally published in another language. In this case, the consent of the journal in which the article was originally published must be obtained and the fact that the article has already been published must be made clear on submission and stated in the abstract. Authors who publish in PAMJ retain copyright to their work. Correspondence concerning articles published in PAMJ is encouraged.
Submission of a manuscript to PAMJ implies that all authors have read and agreed to its content, and that any research that is reported in the manuscript has been performed with the approval of an appropriate ethics committee. Research carried out on humans must be in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration, and any experimental research on animals must follow internationally recognized guidelines. A statement to this effect must appear in the Methods section of the manuscript, including the name of the body which gave approval, with a reference number where appropriate. Informed consent must also be documented. Manuscripts may be rejected if the editorial office considers that the research has not been carried out within an ethical framework, e.g. if the severity of the experimental procedure is not justified by the value of the knowledge gained. View our detailed research policy below.
Generic drug names should generally be used. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand names in parentheses in the Methods section.
We ask authors of PAMJ papers to complete a declaration of competing interests, which should be provided as a separate section of the manuscript, to follow the Acknowledgements. Where an author gives no competing interests, the listing will read 'The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests'. To learn more about competing interests the following articles provide some background:
For all articles that include information or clinical photographs relating to individual patients,
written and signed consent from each patient to publish must also be mailed or faxed to the editorial staff.
The manuscript should also include a statement to this effect in the Acknowledgements section, as follows:
"Written consent for publication was obtained from the patient or their relative."
You will need the following to complete the submission of your manuscript:
We strongly encourage authors to use a reference software to format references.
Output styles for Reference Manager and EndNote are provided below. In case
these software aren't available, format your references manually.
A sample of the PAMJ reference style below [1,2].
To maintain its Open Access business model, the PAMJ charges an Article Processing Fee (APF) of $180 US per manuscripts accepted for publication in the journal. AFP are requested only if the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors are expected to pay APF within 30 days of acceptance of the manuscript; passed this delay, the article may be rejected for non-payment of Article Processing Charges. We do not charge article submission fees. Authors or research sponsors are responsible for the payment of the APF. Authors who are covered through one of our Institutional Members are eligible for a discount or waiver of this fee. We strongly encourage authors to assess their capacity to cover the APF before submitting their manuscript for publication to PAMJ.
Authors can request partial or complete waiver during the submission process. Waivers are subjected to thorough investigation and are rarely granted, considering that the amount charged is already very low and barely cover the cost of publishing a manuscript.
For more on PAMJ article processing charges, consult our Article Processing Charges Questions and Answers page.
Material and records created during the submission process will be archived. Once archived, these material will no longer be accessible to the submitting author through the journal panel. The duration of retention of records created during the submission process is as follow:
We work closely with authors to make what we publish error-free.
When an article is published, the corresponding author receives an email and a correction request sheet which can be used to submit corrections to our online proof checking system if necessary. In each case, we make sure that corrections are handled as soon as possible.
All corrections are handled by the editor assigned to the article.
All other changes requested will be reviewed by the editorial team for appropriateness.
We publish corrections in Erratum and Corrigendum articles as soon as we can.
Once a manuscript is published, authors can request changes for; grammatical and orthographic errors, errors in the spelling of author names or affiliation, invalid or non-readable characters.
After a manuscript is published, PAMJ editors will not accept requests to change the order of authors, add new authors or remove authors.
Retractions are considered by the PAMJ editorial office after assessing evidence of unreliable data or findings, plagiarism, duplicate publication, and unethical research practices.
The PAMJ editorial office may consider an expression of concern notice if an article is under investigation.
When a retraction notice is published in PAMJ, the retracted article and the PDF are watermarked with “retracted article” before the notice is submitted for indexation on PubMed and other article databases where PAMJ content is deposited
The PAMJ is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and follows the International standards for editors and authors  and COPE guidelines on investigating scientific misconduct.
CrossMark is a multi-publisher initiative from Crossref to provide a standard way for readers to locate the current version of a piece of content. By applying the Crossmark logo Publisher Name is committing to maintaining the content it publishes and to alerting readers to changes if and when they occur. Clicking on the Crossmark logo will tell you the current status of a document and may also give you additional publication record information about the document.
PAMJ participates in CrossMark, therefore, all published articles will display the CrossMark logo similar to the one below. By Clicking on the CrossMark logo you will get the current status of an article and will be directed to the latest published version.
Whenever a published article needs to be corrected, the correction or retraction policies above will apply.
Conflicts and disagreements between authors themselves or between authors and the editorial team are inevitable. All conflicts will be handled according to the Committee on Publication Ethics Guidance. Authors are free to bring their grievance against the journal to COPE. As a member of the COPE, some issues between authors or between authors and the journal can be posted on COPE website as case studies, in accordance with COPE editorial policies.
All research articles submitted for consideration to the PAMJ -COM should abide to basic research ethics as guided by international bodies such as:
The basic principles underpinning the ethical conduct at all stages of research are summarized below:
|Articles published in PAMJ are Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).|
The Pan African Medical Journal (ISSN: 1937-8688) is a subsidiary of the Pan African Medical Journal. The contents of this journal is intended exclusively for professionals in the medical, paramedical and public health and other health sectors.
Physical address: Kenya: 3rd Floor, Park Suite Building, Parkland Road, Nairobi. PoBox 38583-00100, tel: +254 (0)20-520-4356 | Cameroon: Immeuble TechnoPark Essos, Yaounde, PoBox: 10020 Yaounde, tel: +237 (0)24-309-5880