Food hygiene assessment in catering establishments in Hay Hassani district-Casablanca
Nadia El Kadmiri1,&, Halima Bakouri2, Fatima Bassir2, Saadia Barmaki2, Laila Rachad3, Sellama Nadifi3, Omar El Kadmiri4, Bouleghmane Amina5
1Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Taroudant, Université IBN ZOHR, Taroudant, Morocco, 2The Regional Laboratory of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Casablanca, Morocco, 3Laboratory of Medical Genetics and Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco, 4IST Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan, Morocco, 5Medical Delegation, district of Hay Hassani Prefecture, Casablanca, Morocco
Nadia El Kadmiri, Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Taroudant, Université Ibn Zohr, Hay El Mohammadi (Lastah) B.P: 271, 83 000 Taroudant, Morocco
Contaminated food is responsible for a significant
amount of illnesses. In Morocco, it has become a
worrying concern. Numerous awareness campaigns are conducted to
warn the population against the risks of such scourge
in ways that will prevent foodborne illness.
Lawful commissions are in charge of examining and
ensuring food safety in production and catering
establishments, in addition to the assessment of food
poisoning risks. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hygienic quality
of food handling, preparation, and storage in catering
establishments within Hay Hassani prefecture in
During the period 2006-2012 a total of 1765 food samples were
taken and examined for microbiological quality tests. As analyzed, 562
per 1765 samples are declared unhealthy for consumption. We note that some
were highly contaminated as compared to other products (p <0.001), specifically
vegetable dishes, and meat dishes. In Hay Hassani district food is generally
prepared and solded under unhygienic conditions, adequate corrective measures
have been announced to improve hygienic practices.
Food hygiene is a scientific discipline describing a set
of conditions and measures necessary to ensure the
safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food
Contaminated food is responsible for abundant
illnesses, whether in developed countries or
developing ones, thus it generates significant health
threats[1,2]. In Morocco, it has become a worrying concern.Since 1980, reporting all cases of poisoning in Morocco became mandatory following the ministerial law No. 19 829DR / BF / MM.The collective food intoxication represents in Morocco 11% of poisoning food. Over 90% of collective foodborne infections are confirmed or probable of bacterial origin . The Anti-Poison and Pharmacovigilance Center of Morocco (CAPM) had compiled 77,133 poisoning cases between 1980 and 2007 (apart from scorpion stings and envenomation) for 16 regions of the kingdom, with a fatality of 15.34‰ . In this context, several commissions covering all the
kingdom are in charge of inspecting and ensuring food
hygiene in production and catering establishments to
assess the risks of food poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic quality of food in those facilities.
Sources of samples:catering establishments in Hay
Hassani prefecture in Casablanca, Morocco
Selection of samples:
during the period 2006-2012, 53 inspections (1 inspection
per establishment) were performed.A total of 1765 food samples was gathered and
examined for microbiological quality. The preselection of catering establishments
started by the most frequented to less visited by the population. All inspections
are planned as part of an annual schedule, approximately 8 inspections per month.The
dishes and products were selected, depending of their higher risks of contamination
and their high frequency of consumption. The sampling number cannot exceed 16
samples per day. Foods are chosen from all varieties prepared and they will be
served on the day of inspection.Samples were collected, placed in sterile vials,
conserved in icebox and transported immediately to the laboratory for microbiological
our study doesn’t involve human subjects (including human material
or human data). It involves just food samples.
count of microorganisms invarious foods has been made
according to the described method by Speck [5
]. Ten grams
or milliliters of each sample were transferred into 90ml (1%) peptone water.
They were homogenized by grind in gland. An appropriate dilution was made for
the data were analyzed using one way ANOVA, with the level of significance set at p <0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using the Graph PRISM V 6.01 software package.
Our inspections have revealed several anomalies regarding: hygiene
of hands and body; storage of food and food preparation; separation
of the hot and cold foods; freezing; food handling; hygiene of
and evacuation of wastes. As analyzed, 562 per 1765 samples were
declared un healthy for consumption. We note that some products
were higher contaminated as compared to other products (p <0.001) (Figure
1), specifically products whose their preparation does not require
cooking (vegetable dishes) or products susceptible to contamination
and which after preparation are exposed for hours at ambient temperature
dishes).As observed these food products contained the highest incidence
of coliforms as compared to other pathogens.During the seven years
the mean of inconformityof the products did not change significantly
The level of instruction and training in good manufacturing practices,
appropriate hygienic handling vary widely, and have been identified
as major factors of contamination in this study and in different
Unsuitable storage temperatures, mixing hot and cold foods, handling
food with dirty utensils and without gloves expose all products
to contamination and the consumer to risk of food poisoning .
An important factor that seems to be missing is training to learn
The role of inspections is very important to raise awareness, and
to introduce corrective measures. Therefore, inspections must be
strengthened to monitor
the food quality in catering establishments. During our inspections,
and after data analysis , a corrective measures 
have been introduced to improve hygienic practices. The general
targeted food handlers who may act as source for infections: Food
handlers should: have a medical file (medical examination, stool
analysis and chest
X-ray); wash their hands after defecation, during and after handling
the food; use clean gloves and clean clothes; cover the hair; maintain
kitchen; avoid cross contamination between raw and cooked food;
reduce time between food handling and service; maintain proper
temperature of cooked
food; protect prepared foods against rodent and insect contamination.
The foods are generally prepared and sold under unhygienic conditions, with limited potential supply of clean water, and limited access to sanitation or garbage treatment facilities. Also, foods to be sold in streets have a higher risk of poisoning. In addition, foodborne illnesses are among the primary causes of death and constitute an economic burden in most countries. Exposure to the risk of poisoning could be avoided by the introduction of corrective measures through intensified inspections.
What is known about this topic
- Foods are sometimes prepared and solded under unhygienic conditions;
- Food borne illnesses are a result of increasingly significant morbidity in all countries.
What this study adds
- Our study highlights for the first time the microbiological quality of food and food hygiene during the period 2006- 2012 in Casablanca;
- Corrective measures have been introduced to improve hygienic practices.
Authors declare no competing interests.
NK carried out the experimentation, performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. HB, FB and SB performed the microbiological analysis, and revised the manuscript. LR, OK, SN and AB revised the manuscript.
We thank the staff of Medical Delegation in Hay Hassani District in Casablanca.
Figure 1: analysis
of the rate of discomfort food. Non significant difference of the
rate over the seven years (P>0.05)
Figure 2: analysis of discomfort rates foods according to their type. Vegetable dishes and hot dishes were higher contaminated as compared to other products (p <0.001)
- Dennaï N, Kharrati B, El Yachioui M. Appréciation de la qualité microbiologique des carcasses de bovins fraîchement abattus. Ann Méd Vét. 2001; 145(4):270-4. PubMed | Google Scholar
- Tauxe RV. Emerging foodborne pathogens. Int J Food Microbiol. 2002;78(1-2):31-41. PubMed | Google Scholar
- Belomaria M, Ahami A, Aboussaleh Y, Elbouhali B, Cherrah Y, Soulaymani A. Origine environnementale des intoxications alimentaires collectives au Maroc: Cas de la région du Gharb Chrarda Bni Hssen. Antropo. 2007;14:83-8. PubMed | Google Scholar
- Rebgui H, Hami H, Ouammi L, Hadrya F, Soulaymani A, Soulaymani-Bencheikh R, et al. Caractéristiques socio- épidémiologiques et évolutives des intoxications aiguës au Maroc: cas de la région de l’oriental. European Scientific Journal. August 2013; edition vol 9(23) ISSN: 1857–7881 (Print) e-ISSN 1857- 7431. PubMed | Google Scholar
- Speck M. Compendium of methods for microbilogical examination of food. Washington DC. American Pub Health Assoc. 1976; 417-23 p. PubMed | Google Scholar
- Danwson R, Canet C. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegetables: translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications. International activities in street food. 1991;2(3):135-9. PubMed | Google Scholar
- Umoh VJ, Odoba MB. Safety and quality evaluation of street foods sold in Zaria, Nigeria. Food Control. 1999;10(1):9-14. PubMed | Google Scholar
- King L, Awumbila B, Canacoo C, Ofosu-Amaah S. An assessment of the safety of street foods in the Ga district of Ghana; implication for the spread of zoososes. Acta Tropica. 2000;76(1):39-43. PubMed | Google Scholar
- Bryan F. Risk associated with practices, procedures and processes that lead to outbreaks of foodborne diseases. J Food Prot. 1988;51(8):663-73. PubMed | Google Scholar
- Legnani P, Leoni E, Berveglieri M, Mirolo G, Alvaro N. Hygienic control of mass catering establishments, microbiological monitoring of food and equipment. Food Control.2004;15(3):205-11. PubMed | Google Scholar