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Original article

Tubercular endometritis detected through Pap smear campaign in Enugu, Nigeria

Tubercular endometritis detected through Pap smear campaign in Enugu, Nigeria


Wilson Onuigbo1,&, Bessie Esimai1, Chinenye Nwaekpe2, Grace Chijioke3


1Department of Histopathology, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, 2Department Microbiology National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, 3Medical Women’s Cente, Enugu, Nigeria



&Corresponding author
Wilson Onuigbo, Department of Histopathology, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria



To the editors of the Pan African Medical Journal

A rare case of tubercular endometritis occurred in a 55-year-old Para 7, postmenopausal woman, who presented herself for cervical smear at the Medical Women’s Centre in Enugu, the capital of Enugu State of Nigeria. The senior author (WO) observed at microscopy the diagnostic Langhans giant cells. This was the only case encountered among 3,267 smears examined between 1993 and 2010. Subsequently, laboratory tests were carried out. The Mantoux test was positive at 14 mm. The ESR measured 52 mm in the first hour. The Total White Count was 7,200/mm³. The differential count showed Neutrophils 51%, Lymphocytes 35%, Eosinophils 13%, and Monocytes 1%. Treatment for tuberculosis was instituted and the follow up has been successful.


Pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries is of epidemiological interest. In a Saudi Arabian series [1], there was no mention of tuberculosis. In an Italian study [2], tubercular endometritis was recorded as a rarity which was detected with fluid hysteroscopy. A Chinese study [3] indicated that this disease may cause uterine adhesions, amenorrhea, and subsequently infertility.


A previous report on the easterly Igbos or Ibos [4], one of the largest ethnic groups in Nigeria, led to the following conclusion [5]: “Igbo women conceive and give birth before the onset of genital tuberculous lesions that lead to primary infertility.” The parity of 5 in the instant case is in keeping with this conclusion. Agreeably, as a study [6] centered in the Nigerian middle belt stated, “Endometrial TB is not a frequent cause of infertility in our set-up.”



Authors’ contributions

WO: pathologist who analyzed the smear and reviewed the pathology literature. BE: chief medical laboratory scientist who prepared the smear. CN: senior medical laboratory scientist who carried out tests on the patient. CE: matron in charge of smear campaign



Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interest.




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