Lack of pre-antiretroviral care and competition from traditional healers, crucial risk factors for very late initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV - A case-control study from eastern Uganda
Lubega Muhamadi, Tumwesigye Nazarius Mbona, Daniel Kadobera, Marrone Gaetano, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Pariyo George, Peterson Stefan, Ekstr闣 Anna Mia
The Pan African Medical Journal. 2011;8:40. doi:10.11604/pamj.2011.8.40.539

Create an account  | Log in
"Better health through knowledge sharing and information dissemination "


Lack of pre-antiretroviral care and competition from traditional healers, crucial risk factors for very late initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV - A case-control study from eastern Uganda

Cite this: The Pan African Medical Journal. 2011;8:40. doi:10.11604/pamj.2011.8.40.539

Received: 11/02/2011 - Accepted: 03/04/2011 - Published: 07/04/2011

Key words: Pre-antiretroviral care, competition from traditional healers, Very late ART initiation

© Lubega Muhamadi et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Available online at:

Corresponding author: Lubega Muhamadi, District Health Office, Iganga District Administration, PO Box 358, Iganga, Uganda (

Lack of pre-antiretroviral care and competition from traditional healers, crucial risk factors for very late initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV - A case-control study from eastern Uganda


Lubega Muhamadi1,3,4,5,7,&, Tumwesigye Nazarius Mbona2, Daniel Kadobera3, Marrone Gaetano4, Fred Wabwire-Mangen2, Pariyo George5, Peterson Stefan4,6, Ekstr闣 Anna Mia4,8


1District Health Office, Iganga District Administration, PO Box 358, Iganga, Uganda, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Makerere University School of Public Health, PO Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda, 3Makerere University Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance System PO BOX 7072 Kampala, Uganda, 4Division of Global Health, IHCAR, Department of Public Health Sciences Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, 5Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, PO Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda, 6IMCH, Department of Womens and Childrens Health, Uppsala University, Sweden, 7Institute of Health Sciences Busoga University, PO Box 154, Iganga, Uganda, 8Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden



&Corresponding author
Lubega Muhamadi, District Health Office, Iganga District Administration, PO Box 358, Iganga, Uganda




Very late initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV (PLHIV) is a major concern especially at a time when WHO is advocating for earlier ART initiation at a CD4 cell count of <350 cells/無 [1-3]. Delayed initiation of ART is associated with late-stage diagnosis and results in high rates of HIV-related morbidity and mortality [4]. In sub-Saharan Africa, while the overall coverage of ART initiation has increased to 48% of those in need, emerging evidence shows that up to 59% of PLHIV are either lost to follow-up or start ART at a very late stage of the disease [5,6].


Uganda ART services have reached a reported ARV coverage of 57.5% of those eligible for treatment at a threshold for ART initiation of CD4 cell counts <200 cells/無 [7,8]. The coverage would, however, decrease to 40.4% if estimated based on the current WHO recommended threshold of <350 cells/無[8].The Ugandan HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plan 2007/8 2011/12 projected an increase in ART coverage to about 80% by 2011/12 . However, limited uptake of, and delayed access to, HIV services are still a major stumbling-block to reaching these targets [9].


In Iganga district, eastern Uganda, 40% (360 out of 900) of PLHIV who initiated ART between 2004 and 2009 had a CD4 count of <50 cells/無, with a median CD4 count of 126 (range 14-198) (DHO 2009 unpublished). Recent studies also show that 40% of PLHIV in Uganda present for HIV care late or very late at WHO disease stage 3 or 4, many with CD4 cell counts of <50 cells/無. [6,10,11]. There is paucity of information on why PLHIV would initiate ART very late in a country where HIV and ART awareness is presumably high [9]. Subsequently, there has been a call for additional studies to determine whether late disease presentation and hence late ART initiation is due to delays in testing or accessing care [12]. The research team recently conducted a qualitative study involving clients who had initiated ART very late at a CD4 count of <50 cells/無 in Iganga district, eastern Uganda, to explore reasons for very late ART initiation. Health systems and individual/community related themes emerged as the main client reported barriers to timely initiation of ART [13]. The team therefore sought to identify crucial health system or individual/community related risk factors for very late initiation of ART in the same area. The aim was to provide information that could help policy and decision-makers in setting priorities for enhancing timely initiation of ART in Iganga district and other similar settings in Uganda and beyond.




Study area and study setting


The study was conducted at Iganga District Hospital which is located 115 kilometres east of the capital Kampala. The hospital was chosen because until 2008 (most of the period under study) it was the only ART-providing unit in the district and it had the best updated ART register. ART services were first initiated at the hospital in 2004.


The district is predominantly rural with only about 7% living in a peri-urban environment, namely Iganga town. The majority of the people belong to the Bantu ethnic tribe called Basoga, most of whom depend on the subsistence farming of food crops. There are 101 health units in the district; 83 of which are owned by the government and 18 are run by non-government organisations (NGOs). District ART services are organised according to the Uganda national hierarchical referral system. Seventy (70) of the units are health centres (HC) II offering only cotrimoxazole refills and home-based care services to PLHIV; 27 are HC III offering routine counselling and testing, pre-ARV and home-based care services to PLHIV; and 3 are HC IV offering routine counselling and testing, home-based care, pre-ARV care and ART services to PLHIV. Other care providers include over 200 private drugstores/private clinics located in Iganga town and several other smaller towns scattered throughout the district. Most of the drugs commonly found in these drugstores and clinics include painkillers, assorted antibiotics and cheap antimalarials but no antiretroviral drugs (ARVS). There are no other accredited ART providers in the district, although over 100 traditional and spiritual healers are presumed by the community to offer similar services in the district (DHO 2009 unpublished, [14]).


Over 40 000 people (6.7% of the district adult population) currently live with HIV in Iganga district and 6 000 PLHIV are presumed to be eligible for ART [15,16]. Only 1 150 PLHIV (i.e. less than 20% of those in need), however, currently access ART. Until 2008, when two more health centres were accredited, ART services could only be accessed at the district hospital. The Iganga district ART services are occasionally managed by a medical doctor but more often by an assistant physician or a nurse. The services offered include refills of antiretroviral drugs (ARVS) and cotrimoxazole, adherence counselling, psychosocial and nutritional support once a week (DHO 2008 unpublished).


Study design


The study employed a case-control design for clients under ART care and was carried out between January and February 2010 at Iganga District Hospital. The case definition was HIV-infected clients who started ART with a CD4 cell count of <50 cells/無 (very late initiators). The control subjects consisted of clients who started ART with a CD4 cell count of 50-200 (late initiators) based on the current WHO recommendation for starting ART at CD4 cell count of <350 cells/無[3].


Study population


All adult clients on ART in the hospital who enrolled for ART during the study period (January 2005-December 2009) were eligible for the study. Given that 40% of the clients initiated on ART in Iganga district between 2004 and 2009 had a CD4 cell count of <50 cells/無 and that the mean and median CD4 cell counts at initiation of ART for all clients were 122 and 126 cells/無 respectively (range 14-198) (DHO 2009 unpublished), these margins made all clients initiated on ART during the study period eligible.


Inclusion and exclusion criteria


Clients on ART who had been enrolled in the ART register at the hospital and were alive and of sound mental status were included in the study. Clients who initiated ART at the hospital before 2005 were excluded to reduce the risk of bias due to the unmet demand that had to be catered for during the first months of programme initiation in 2004. Clients in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Programme (PMTCT) were also excluded because they had already been enrolled in another study at the same site.


Sampling size and sampling procedure


Fleiss formula for sample size calculation was used under the following two assumptions: a) that the true ratio of cases to controls as observed from the hospital ART register was 40:60. b) that exposure to pre-ARV care was similar for both cases and control subjects (50%). Exposure to pre-ARV care was used in sample size calculation because it is a very important explanatory variable for timely entry into HIV care in the area [17,18]. Thus with a confidence interval of 95 % and power of 80%, a minimum of 124 cases and 186 controls were needed to reach statistically significant results for the study. To cater for clients who would likely withdraw consent or difficult to trace for interviews, an additional 20% margin of subjects were recruited. In total 152 cases and 243 controls were recruited for the study.


The cases and controls subjects were identified using systematic random sampling as described below: A Chart review of the ART register at the hospital for the study period was done. From the review, all clients who satisfied the selection criteria above were identified and divided into cases and control subjects in accordance with the CD4 count definitions above. For each category (case vs control), a list with all clients ART registration numbers, was divided into serial pairs. Using simple random sampling, one of the two first numbers of each starting serial pair for each category was selected as the first client for the study followed by every subsequent third client in each category until the desired sample size had been realised.


Trained research assistants then traced the clients for interviews using medical record information on address/place of living to seek informed consent. All the selected cases were subsequently interviewed, but 31 controls could not be interviewed either because they withdrew their consent for the interviews or could not be traced. Thus, the total number of interviewees enrolled in the study was 152 cases and 202 control subjects.


Data collection


Semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were employed for the study. Six research assistants who had previous experience in quantitative data collection from PLHIV within the Iganga-Mayuge demographic surveillance site interviewed the clients. The research assistants were trained for four days on the study aim, design and tools. The tools were pilot-tested at the nearest HC IV offering ART. Experiences from the pilot study were discussed at an extra session together with the research assistants. Necessary changes were made to the tools and the assistants received additional guidance.


The data collected included individual/community related factors associated with timely/late initiation of ART such as the clients age, gender, education, occupation, religion, number of people living in the household and marital status. Other individual/community related information included; client-perceived barriers to timely ART, client perceptions and misconceptions about ARVs, CD4 count at ART initiation, presence of family support and perceived confidentiality of the staff at the ART clinic (coded as trustworthy vs not trustworthy).


Health system-related data such as client reported access to information on when to start ARVS after VCT, access to post test pre-ARV care and waiting time for CD4 cell count results was also collected, Other health system related data collected included waiting time between prescription and accessing ARVS (and if >1 month the reasons for waiting that long), clients distance to the ARV centre, any care sought from other providers such as traditional/spiritual healers before coming to the ARV centre and reasons for their choice of service provider. The data were checked for consistency and completeness by the first and second author (LM and TN) throughout the data collection period,


Data management and analysis


Data were double-entered and the two data sets were checked for discrepancies using epi-Info version 2000 (CDC Atlanta). The data were then exported to STATA8 (STATA Corporation, college station TX USA) for univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. Following frequency distributions and cross-tabulations, the strength of association between variables was determined using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For the bivariate analysis, cross-tabulations were run for each independent variable against the outcome variable (very late ART initiation). An independent variable was presumed to be significant if the cross-tabulation generated a p-value of <0.05. Multivariate analysis was also done to control for confounding and test effect-modification. A logistic model was constructed to determine the best model for prediction of very late initiation of ART among ART clients. This process involved putting all plausible variables found to be significantly associated with very late initiation of ART among ART clients during the bivariate analysis into an initial model. The best model was thereafter generated using backward elimination and likelihood ratios to select significant variables.


Ethical clearance


This study was approved by the Makerere University School of Public Health Institutional Review Board, the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology and the Iganga district authorities. The respondents were informed about the study aims, their discretion to participate or withdraw at any time and assured that all information obtained from them would be kept confidential. The anticipated benefits or harm of the study to the participants or the community were clearly explained and all the study participants signed consent forms before the interviews commenced.




A total of 354 clients (152 cases initiating ART at very late a CD4 count of <50 cells/無 and 202 control subjects initiating ART at a CD4 cell count of 50-200 cells/無) were interviewed for the study. The mean age of the respondents was 38.0 years and 41.4 years for the cases and controls respectively. The majority of both cases (82%) and controls (61%) were female. More cases (80.5%) than controls (59.1%) were unmarried and 84.5% of the very late initiators were subsistence farmers compared to only 40.9% among the controls. The majority of cases (70.2%) and none of the controls reported having experienced ARV stock outs (Table 1).


Barriers to timely initiation of ART included ARV stock-outs, competition from traditional healers, inadequate pre-ARV care and lack of family support as reported by the very late initiators. Other reported barriers for timely initiation of ART were personal characteristics such as being male, being a subsistence farmer or being younger (Table 2). Very late initiators reported seeking care from traditional/spiritual healers because they perceived the healers as being accessible, nearer, less expensive, more holistic and better quality care providers than the public ART services.


Bivariate analysis


The bivariate analysis established that very late initiation of ART was a function of both individual/community related factors as well as important health-system related factors.


Individual/community related factors


Younger clients had a higher risk of initiating ART very late compared to older clients OR 0.9 (95% CI 0.8-0.9). Low educated clients were 14 times more likely to initiate ART very late compared to clients who were well-educated OR 13.5 (95% CI 7.8-23.1). Clients who were unmarried were five times more likely to initiate ART very late compared to those who were married OR 5.3 (95% CI 3.2-8.6). Subsistence farmers were eight times more likely to initiate ART very late compared to non-farmers OR 7.8 (95% CI 4.7-13.1 Clients who lacked family support were seven times more likely to initiate ART very late compared to those who had family support OR 6.7 (95% CI 4.1-11.1) (Table 2).


Health system-related factors


Clients who had reportedly not attended pre-ARV care were eight times more likely to initiate ART vary late compared to those who had attended pre-ARV care, OR 8.2 (95% CI 5.1-13.3). In addition, clients who had reportedly sought care from traditional/ spiritual healers before seeking formal ART care were 17 times more likely to initiate ART very late compared to those who did not seek prior traditional/spiritual care OR 17.1 (95% CI 9.1-29.6) (Table 2).


Multivariate analysis


The variables that remained significantly associated with very late ART initiation in the multivariate analysis included: having sought previous care from traditional/spiritual healers for AIDS related symptoms, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 7.8 (95% CI 3.7-16.4), lack of pre-ARV care AOR 4.6 (95% CI 2.3-9.3), subsistence farming, AOR 6.3 (95% CI 3.1-13.0), lack of family support AOR 3.3 (95% CI 1.6-6.6), increase in age as a continuous variable AOR 0.9 (95% CI 0.8-0.9) and being female AOR 0.4 (95% CI 0.2-0.8), the latter two being protective against very late initiation of ART (Table 2).




Risks factors associated with very late initiation of ART included health system-related factors such as ARV stock-outs, competition from traditional/spiritual healers, and lack of pre-ARV care. Others were individual/community factors such as younger age, being male, being a subsistence farmer and lacking family support.


Many cases reported that they initiated ART very late because at the time of prescription, they were informed that ARVs were out of stock. Previous studies have established that timely provision of drugs improves the utilization of health services [19-26]. The ARV stock-outs could have been due to both an inefficient supply and procurement chain and/or a poor data management system that undermined forecasting for the quantities of drugs required. The stock-outs could also have been due to shortfalls in funding for procuring the drugs. The finding supports other reports on ART-eligible clients failing to access ARVS on time due to stock-outs and poor coordination of procurement procedures in Uganda that appears to be lagging far behind in terms of scale-up priorities [23,27-30].


Many very late ART initiators reported seeking care from traditional/spiritual healers before going to the centres for ART provision since they perceived the healers to be more accessible, cheaper, more holistic and providing better quality care (Figure 2). Our finding is supported by other studies in sub-Saharan Africa which have also shown that traditional/spiritual healers influence peoples health-seeking behaviour [14,31-35].


Many very late ART initiators had also not attended pre-ARV care in contrast to the late initiators. Lack of pre-ARV care could be attributed to late presentation/late diagnosis and hence failure to benefit from the advantages of early diagnosis such as post-test counselling and routine monitoring of eligibility for ART. As demonstrated also by previous research from resource-poor high prevalence settings in Uganda, South Africa and Asia, the finding highlights the importance of early HIV diagnosis, adequate post-test counselling and follow-up for PLHIV in pre-ARV care to ensure timely initiation of ART [14,17,18,36-38].


Increase in age was protective against very late initiation of ART. The finding could be attributed to increased awareness of the dangers of not seeking care for AIDS-related symptoms, reduced HIV-related stigma or the importance of seeking care related to living longer and accomplishing responsibilities as established by other studies [39].


The deliberate exclusion of women diagnosed with HIV and initiated on ART through the PMTCT programme, enabled us to look at the influence of gender in terms of seeking ART, regardless of the coverage and quality of PMTCT. We found that women were 60% less likely to start ART very late compared to men. The finding could be a reflection the even stronger stigma and denial associated with HIV seen among men in Iganga district [13]. Other studies have also shown that females have been found to seek HIV care earlier than men by other studies [40,41].


Subsistence farmers were six times more likely to start ART very late (AOR 6.3, 05% CI 3.1-13.0) compared to non-subsistence farmers. Subsistence farming is characterized by poverty and hence lack of purchasing power for social services and lack of awareness or access to vital information and communication about health care services. Poverty has been established as a predictor for late or poor health-seeking behaviour by other studies in low and medium-income countries [41-45].


Clients who lacked family support were more likely to initiate ART very late compared to those who had family support. Family support helps in accessing ART services and understanding behavioural and routine changes in the schedule of PLHIV such as monthly visits to the ART centre. Family support also enhances daily adherence to ART and discourages HIV/AIDS-related stigma as supported by previous research from Africa, Asia and South America [38,46-51].


Methodological considerations


The use of CD4 count as a measure for very late initiation of ART influences the interpretation of our results because a low CD4 count does not automatically translate into late disease or symptomatic disease but varies somewhat among individuals. The decision to use CD4 counts to classify case-status as well as the low cut-off margins used was made to facilitate comparisons with other studies taking the current WHO classification of late presentation as a standard. The decision was also based on our clinical observations and other studies performed in Uganda about the prognosis of very late ART initiators.


The influence of the possible selection bias introduced by only including subjects alive at the time of study, often encountered when using retrospective real-life data, is impossible to determine. Nor could recall bias be excluded but it is unlikely to have played any major role in this study since the identified risk factors did not require any detailed retrospective recall that could be assumed to differ between cases and controls subjects in this study.


Some confidence intervals are wide due to the fairly small sample size. However, the sampled data still allowed us to identify a number of statistically significant predictors for very late initiation of ART with enough precision to lay the ground for the necessary health systems and policy interventions needed to encourage earlier ART initiation. The findings of this study should be generalizable to most other rural districts in Uganda and surrounding countries with similar health system structures.




In conclusion, policymakers and providers should put more emphasis on strategic ARV procurement and supply to prevent stock-outs through appropriate coordination and control of the different stakeholders at national and sub national levels. There is need to ensure that all new HIV clients access regular pre-ARV care for routine monitoring in order start ART on time. Pre-ARV care should encourage status disclosure to the immediate family to enhance social support which is key to improving access to ART [47,52]. Making services more affordable, accessible and user-friendly through peripheral units and trained, as well as supervised, lay workers is one way of making ART centres/services more attractive to potential end users than traditional healers [19,53-55].



Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.



Authors contributions

LM and TN were involved in the inception and data collection for this study. All the authors were substantively involved in the design, analysis, interpretation and manuscript revising for the study.




This study received financial support from Sida and logistical support from the ARVMAC project funded by the European Commission. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not reflect the views of Sidas or EU.




Table 1: Univariate analysis of explanatory variables for ART initiation in Iganga, eastern Uganda, (N=354)

Table 2: Factors associated with very late initiation (CD4 <50) of ART in Iganga, eastern Uganda, (N=354)




  1. Hammer SM, Eron JJ, Reiss P, Schooley RT, Thompson MA, Walmsley S, Cahn P, Fischl MA, Gatell JM, Hirsch MS. Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection-2008 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. Jama. 2008; 300:555-570. This article on PubMed

  2. Sterne JA, May M, Costagliola D, de Wolf F, Phillips AN, Harris R, Funk MJ, Geskus RB, Gill J, Dabis F. Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in AIDS-free HIV-1-infected patients: a collaborative analysis of 18 HIV cohort studies. Lancet. 2009; 373:1352-1363. This article on PubMed

  3. WHO. Rapid advice: antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents. Geneva. 2009; World Health Organisation

  4. WHO. Towards universal Access; Scaling up Priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the Health sector. Geneva. 2009; WHO

  5. Tsague L, Koulla SS, Kenfak A, Kouanfack C, Tejiokem M, Abong T. Determinants of retention in care in an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in urban Cameroon, 20032005. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2008; 1:2. This article on PubMed

  6. Kigozi IM, Dobkin LM, Martin JN, Geng EH, Muyindike W, Emenyonu NI, Bangsberg DR, Hahn JA. Late-Disease Stage at Presentation to an HIV Clinic in the Era of Free Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009; 52:280-9. This article on PubMed

  7. UAC. UNGASS Country Progress Report Jan 2006-2007. Kampala. 2008; Ministry of Health

  8. MOH. Status of antiretroviral therapy in Uganda. Kampala. 2010; Ministry of Health

  9. UAC. Moving Toward Universal Access: National HIV & AIDS Strategic Plan 2007/8 -2011/12. Kampala. 2007; Uganda AIDS Commission

  10. Smart T. Uganda study confirms low CD4 count, low body weight, TB and aneamia major risks factors for death after starting ART. London. 2007; NAM

  11. Battegay M, Fehr J, Fluckiger U, Elzi L. Antiretroviral therapy of late presenters with advanced HIV disease. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008; 62:41-44. This article on PubMed

  12. Kilewo C, Massawe A, Lyamuya E, Semali I, Kalokola F, Urassa E, Giattas M, Temu F, Karlsson K, Mhalu F, Biberfeld G. HIV counseling and testing of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: experiences from a study on prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001; 28:458-462. This article on PubMed

  13. Muhamadi L, Nsabagasani X, Tumwesigye MN, Wabwire-Mangen F, Ekstrom AM, Peterson S, Pariyo G. Inadequate pre-antiretroviral care, stock-out of antiretroviral drugs and stigma: policy challenges/bottlenecks to the new WHO recommendations for earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (CD<350 cells/microL) in eastern Uganda. Health policy. 2010; 97:187-194. This article on PubMed

  14. Lubega M, Nsabagasani X, Tumwesigye NM, Wabwire-Mangen F, Ekstrom AM, Pariyo G, Peterson S. Policy and practice, lost in transition: Reasons for high drop-out from pre-antiretroviral care in a resource-poor setting of eastern Uganda. Health policy. 2010;95:153-158. This article on PubMed

  15. MOH. Uganda HIV/AIDS sero-behavioral survey. Kampala. 2006; Ministry of Health

  16. UNAIDS/WHO. Report on the global AIDS pandemic. Geneva. 2007; UNAIDS

  17. Lawn SD, Harries AD, Wood R. Strategies to reduce early morbidity and mortality in adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010; 5:18-26. This article on PubMed

  18. Sanjobo N, Frich JC, Fretheim A. Barriers and facilitators to patients' adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Zambia: a qualitative study. SAHARA J. 2008; 5:136-143. This article on PubMed

  19. Obrist B, Iteba N, Lengeler C, Makemba A, Mshana C, Nathan R, Alba S, Dillip A, Hetzel MW, Mayumana I. Access to health care in contexts of livelihood insecurity: a framework for analysis and action. PLoS Med. 2007; 4:1584-1588. This article on PubMed

  20. Mamdani M, Bangser M. Poor people's experiences of health services in Tanzania: a literature review. Reprod Health Matters. 2004; 12:138-153. This article on PubMed

  21. Dillip A, Hetzel MW, Gosoniu D, Kessy F, Lengeler C, Mayumana I, Mshana C, Mshinda H, Schulze A, Makemba A. Socio-cultural factors explaining timely and appropriate use of health facilities for degedege in south-eastern Tanzania. Malar J. 2009; 8:144. This article on PubMed

  22. Chibwana AI, Mathanga DP, Chinkhumba J, Campbell CH, Jr. Socio-cultural predictors of health-seeking behaviour for febrile under-five children in Mwanza-Neno district, Malawi. Malar J. 2009; 8:219. This article on PubMed

  23. Kiwanuka SN, Ekirapa EK, Peterson S, Okui O, Rahman MH, Peters D, Pariyo GW. Access to and utilisation of health services for the poor in Uganda: a systematic review of available evidence. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008; 102:1067-1074. This article on PubMed

  24. WHO. A public health approach to antiretroviral therapy: overcoming constraits. Geneva. 2003; WHO

  25. WHO. The 3 by 5 Initiative. Geneva. 2003; World Health Organisation

  26. Harries AD, Zachariah, Stephen Lawn Sydney, Rosen. Strategies to improve patient retention on antiretroviraltherapy in sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Jun;15 Suppl 1:70-5. This article on PubMed

  27. Nakkazi E. Uganda: ARV Shortage Sets in As Aids Funding Falls. Nairobi. 2009; The East-African

  28. AVERT. HIV and AIDS in Uganda. West Sussex. 2010; AVERT

  29. Hasunira R, Muhinda A, Mutambi R, Were B. Missing target-Country Reports Uganda. Kampala. 2009; ITPC

  30. Jirair Ratevosian. AIDS Programs Hit Setbacks in Africa. Washington. 2010; en

  31. Baguma P. The traditional treatment of AIDS in Uganda: benefits and problems Key issues and debates: traditional healers. Soc Afr SIDA. 1996 Jul;(13):4-6. This article on PubMed

  32. Burnett A, Baggaley R, Ndovi-MacMillan M, Sulwe J, Hang'omba B, Bennett J. Caring for people with HIV in Zambia: are traditional healers and formal health workers willing to work together?. AIDS Care. 1999; 11:481-491. This article on PubMed

  33. Kaboru BB, Ndubani P, Falkenberg T, Pharris A, Muchimba M, Solo K, Hojer B, Faxelid E. A Dialogue-Building Pilot Intervention Involving Traditional and Biomedical Health Providers Focusing on STIs and HIV/AIDS Care in Zambia. Sage journals online. 2008; 13:110-126

  34. Ritzenthaler R. Delivering Antiretroviral therapy in Resource Constrained Settings ;Lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda. Washington. 2005; Family Health International

  35. Ochai. Spiritual Healing Threatening Adherence to ARVs in Uganda. Nairobi. 2008; Medical News Today

  36. Hardon AP, Akurut D, Comoro C, Ekezie C, Irunde HF, Gerrits T, Kglatwane J, Kinsman J, Kwasa R, Maridadi J. Hunger, waiting time and transport costs: time to confront challenges to ART adherence in Africa. AIDS Care. 2007; 19:658-665. This article on PubMed

  37. Chesney MA, Morin M, Sherr L. Adherence to HIV combination therapy. Soc Sci Med. 2000; 50:1599-1605. This article on PubMed

  38. USAID. Health seeking behavior in Rural Uttah Pradesh, implications for HIV prevention, care and treatment. Washington. 2009; USAID/Health policy initiative

  39. Bourne, Andrew P. Socio-demographic determinants of health care-seeking behaviour, self-reported illness and self-evaluated health status in Jamaica. Kingston. 2009; DRUNPP

  40. Castilla J, Sobrino P, De La Fuente L, Noguer I, Guerra L, Parras F. Late diagnosis of HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: consequences for AIDS incidence. AIDS. 2002; 16:1945-1951. This article on PubMed

  41. Diero LO, Shaffer D, Kimaiyo S, Siika AM, Rotich JK, Smith FE, Mamlin JJ, Einterz RM, Justice AC, Carter EJ, Tierney WM. Characteristics of HIV infected patients cared for at "academic model for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS" clinics in western Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2006; 83:424-433. This article on PubMed

  42. Severe P, Leger P, Charles M, Noel F, Bonhomme G, Bois G, George E, Kenel-Pierre S, Wright PF, Gulick R. Antiretroviral therapy in a thousand patients with AIDS in Haiti. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353:2325-2334. This article on PubMed

  43. Wood E, Montaner JS, Bangsberg DR, Tyndall MW, Strathdee SA, O'Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS. Expanding access to HIV antiretroviral therapy among marginalized populations in the developed world. Aids. 2003;17:2419-2427. This article on PubMed

  44. Krawczyk CS, Funkhouser E, Kilby JM, Vermund SH. Delayed access to HIV diagnosis and care: Special concerns for the Southern United States. AIDS Care. 2006; 18 Suppl 1:S35-44. This article on PubMed

  45. Ahmed SM. Exploring health seeking behavior of diadvantaged populations in rural Bangladesh. Stockholm. 2005; Karolinska University Press

  46. Turagabeci AR, Nakamura K, Kizuki M, Takano T. Family structure and health, how companionship acts as a buffer against ill health. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2007; 5:61. This article on PubMed

  47. Greeff M, Phetlhu R, Makoae LN, Dlamini PS, Holzemer WL, Naidoo JR, Kohi TW, Uys LR, Chirwa ML. Disclosure of HIV status: experiences and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS and nurses involved in their care in Africa. Qual Health Res. 2008; 18:311-324. This article on PubMed

  48. Greeff M, Uys LR, Holzemer WL, Makoae LN, Dlamini PS, Kohi TW, Chirwa ML, Naidoo JR, Phetlhu RD. Experiences of Hiv/Aids Stigma of Persons Living with Hiv/Aids and Nurses Involved in Their Care from Five African Countries. Afr J Nurs Midwifery. 2008; 10:78-108. This article on PubMed

  49. Makoae LN, Greeff M, Phetlhu RD, Uys LR, Naidoo JR, Kohi TW, Dlamini PS, Chirwa ML, Holzemer WL. Coping with HIV-related stigma in five African countries. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2008; 19:137-146. This article on PubMed

  50. Carvalho FT, Morais NA, Koller SH, Piccinini CA. Protective factors and resilience in people living with HIV/AIDS. Cad Saude Publica. 2007; 23:2023-2033. This article on PubMed

  51. Li L, Wu S, Wu Z, Sun S, Cui H, Jia M. Understanding family support for people living with HIV/AIDS in Yunnan, China. AIDS Behav. 2006; 10:509-517. This article on PubMed

  52. Knodel J, J Kespichayawattana. The role of parents and family members in ART treatment adherence: Evidence from Thailand. Res Aging. 2010 Jan 1;32(1):19-39. This article on PubMed

  53. Jaffar S, Govender T, Garrib A, Welz T, Grosskurth H, Smith PG, Whittle H, Bennish ML. Antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: public health research priorities. Trop Med Int Health. 2005; 10:295-299. This article on PubMed

  54. Jaffer S. Home-based HIV care just as effective as clinic-based care in Sub-saharan Africa. London. 2009; London school of hygiene and tropical medicine

  55. Maskew M, MacPhail P, Menezes C, Rubel D. Lost to follow up: contributing factors and challenges in South African patients on antiretroviral therapy. S Afr Med J. 2007; 97:853-857. This article on PubMed







The Pan African Medical Journal articles are archived on Pubmed Central. Access PAMJ archives on PMC here

Volume 31 (September - December 2018)

Article tools


Pre-antiretroviral care
Competition from traditional healers
Very late ART initiation

Rate this article


PAMJ is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics
PAMJ Authors services
Next abstract

PAMJ is published in collaboration with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET)
Currently tracked by: DOAJ, AIM, Google Scholar, AJOL, EBSCO, Scopus, Embase, IC, HINARI, Global Health, PubMed Central, PubMed/Medline, Ulrichsweb, More to come . Member of COPE.

ISSN: 1937-8688. © 2018 - Pan African Medical Journal. All rights reserved